In recent years, researchers have estimated that concerns about body appearance do not only affect females but males as well. The latest research has estimated that the number of boys engaging in weight loss strategies range from 21.5 to 50%: one-third of adolescent boys prefers a thinner body size, and another one-third prefers a larger and more muscular body (Choane & Pope, 2001; Furnhman & Calnan, 1998; McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2001, 2003, 2004).
Moreover, McCabe and Ricciardelli (2005a) indicated that already at the age of eight, boys focus on increasing the size of their muscles and are already receiving messages to achieve this goal. Gender differences are clear: boys focus on the muscular apparatus, while girls focus on weight loss and body image and appearance.
The Body Esteem Scale focuses on 3 areas - (1) Appearance: the general feeling about appearance; (2) Weight: weight satisfaction; (3) Attribution: the evaluation attributed to others about one’s own body and appearance
Mendelson, Mendelson, & White, 2001