Measuring

Stress and Anxiety

Questionnaire Name
Description
Key stage

Given the increased testing of school-aged children, there is a need for a current and valid scale to measure the effects of test anxiety in children. Individuals are involved in three different processes to express test anxiety including their cognition (i.e., worry), behaviour (i.e., task-relevant and task irrelevant actions), and physiology (i.e., emotional arousal). In association with these factors, this survey looks at test anxiety for primary school children in the context of their (1) thoughts; (2) Nervous system reactions; and (3) Off-task behaviours.

KS2

The HSE Work-related stress scale was developed and tested alongside the Work-related Quality of Life scale (WRQoL scale - also included in the Bounce platform) by Portsmouth University. The survey is recognised by the Department For Education's Staff Wellbeing Charter, a declaration of support for, and set of commitments to, the wellbeing and mental health of everyone working in education.

The survey consists of 35 items that ask about 'working conditions' known to be potential causes of work related stress. It provides feedback on the seven stressor categories included in the UK Health and Safety Executive's Management Standards:

  • Demands - Includes issues like workload, work patterns, and the work environment.
  • Control - How much say the person has in the way they do their work.
  • Support - Includes the encouragement, sponsorship and resources provided by the organisation, line management and colleagues.
  • Relationships - Includes promoting positive working to avoid conflict and dealing with unacceptable behaviour.
  • Role - Whether people understand their role within the organisation and whether the organisation ensures that the person does not have conflicting roles.
  • Change - How organisational change (large or small) is managed and communicated in the organisation.

The Management Standards Approach recommends that the HSE Management Standards Indicator should be used to gather annual feedback. The analysis of results can help school leaders to understand the current situation in their setting. This is a great starting point for working with employees to improve health, well-being and performance.

Staff

The Multidimensional Test Anxiety Scale (MTAS) was developed as instrument for measuring test, or examination anxiety (henceforth referred to as test anxiety), in populations of secondary school students aged 11 to 19 years. The 16 items correspond to two cognitive subscales and two affective-physiological subscales.

The MTAS consists of 16 items that ask how students generally feel before, during, or after, tests or examinations. These items are intended to measure relatively stable individual differences in the tendency for students to appraise tests and examinations as a threat and become anxious. A highly test anxious student will show a greater tendency to appraise tests and test-like situations (those situations where one’s performance will be assessed in some way) as threatening and respond with greater anxiety.

The two cognitive subscales are Worry over Failure and Perceived Cognitive Interference (i.e. one’s perception of how anxiety interferes with the cognitive processes required in tests such as memory and concentration). The two affective-physiological subscales are Feelings of Tension and Perceived Physiological Indicators of Anxiety.

KS3
KS4

Social physique anxiety is social psychological variable derived from theories of self presentation and impression management that reflects an individual’s perceived worry or concern with the presentation of the physique in situations in which others are perceived to be evaluating them (Hart, Leary, & Rejeski, 1989; Leary & Kowalski, 1990). Social physique anxiety is important because it has been shown to be related to salient psychological and behavioural factors associated with health.

For example, social physique anxiety is associated with physical self-esteem (Kowalski, Crocker, & Kowalski, 2001), body image (Chad & Spink, 1996), dissatisfaction with appearance and weight (Crawford & Eklund, 1994), eating attitudes (Haase & Prapavessis, 1998) and motivation to avoid of health-related behaviours, such as physical activity. Overall, females are at higher risk to develop social physique anxiety disorders

KS4

Social physique anxiety is social psychological variable derived from theories of self presentation and impression management that reflects an individual’s perceived worry or concern with the presentation of the physique in situations in which others are perceived to be evaluating them (Hart, Leary, & Rejeski, 1989; Leary & Kowalski, 1990). Social physique anxiety is important because it has been shown to be related to salient psychological and behavioural factors associated with health.

For example, social physique anxiety is associated with physical self-esteem (Kowalski, Crocker, & Kowalski, 2001), body image (Chad & Spink, 1996), dissatisfaction with appearance and weight (Crawford & Eklund, 1994), eating attitudes (Haase & Prapavessis, 1998) and motivation to avoid of health-related behaviours, such as physical activity. Overall, females are at higher risk to develop social physique anxiety disorders

KS2
KS3
KS4

The scale consists of six subscales aimed at assessing specific types of anxiety: Social Phobia (SP), Panic disorder (PD), agoraphobia (AP), Generalised Anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), Separation anxiety disorder (SAD), and specific phobias (PFI[fear of physical injury]).

Subscales are scored separately to produce scores pertinent to the specific sub-construct, and also added together for an overall anxiety symptoms score. Since its creation, the scale has become a standard questionnaire and its psychometrics have been tested thoroughly in a multitude of studies across several countries.

KS2
KS3
KS4

The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is the most widely used psychological instrument for measuring the perception of stress. It is a measure of the degree to which situations in one’s life are appraised as stressful. Items were designed to tap how unpredictable, uncontrollable, and overloaded respondents find their lives. High levels of stress are associated with poor self-reported health, elevated blood pressure, depression, and susceptibility to infection.

KS4
Staff
KS3

The PSS-C is helpful for the early identification of children at risk of anxiety/stress. This is important because stress appears to result in increased vulnerability for poorer school outcomes and reduced home functional performance, as well as resulting in problems with overall health, mental health and body weight. An effective and efficient assessment for early identification of anxiety/stress in children assists in the development of appropriate interventions.

KS1
KS2
KS3
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